The basis of Pathology

Date of publication:2010-6   Press: Hubei science and Technology Press   Author:Dong Ying, Xiong 水香 editor   Pages:127   Words:205000  
Preface

In 2006 September, science and Education Department of the Ministry of Health issued the "guiding opinions" on the strengthening of health occupation education, the school guidelines health occupation education is: "to serve the purpose, to the post demand as the guide", put forward to deepen the reform of teaching health occupation education training system, built deep in occupation ability to focus on the ability of professional technology, application and the basic occupation quality as the main body, the teaching contents scientifically select the configuration, construction of knowledge structure and ability structure of science. This textbook is for the current secondary occupation education related professional preparation. In order to meet the vocational nursing, midwifery and related professional students training objectives, and fully consider the degree master students ability and knowledge, to apply, enough as the guiding ideology, at the same time, pathology and transitional characteristics of curriculum system. Strong support by Hubei science and Technology Press, the process of compiling the teaching material of Hubei Province medical occupation education research laboratory and supervised the school and the editor, editing staff are excellent teachers teaching, in the busy teaching work in the shortest time to complete the task of writing, in regards to the highest respect and heartfelt thanks. Omissions and deficiencies in the future will make up for the correction of textbooks in use to be.
Summary

This book is for the current secondary occupation education related professional preparation. In order to meet the vocational nursing, midwifery and related professional students training objectives, and fully consider the degree master students ability and knowledge, to apply, enough as the guiding ideology, at the same time, pathology and transitional characteristics of curriculum system.
Catalogue of books

Introduction
section pathology overview of
A, pathology task
two, the scope of pathology and medical status
three, pathological research methods and learning method of
second diseases.
A, the concept of health and disease, etiology of
two
three, the development of the disease process common law
four, disease course and outcome of
the first chapter of cell and tissue injury and repair,
the first cell and tissue
A, atrophy, hypertrophy of two

three,
four hyperplasia, metaplasia
second cell and tissue injury.
A, degeneration, necrosis.
two
third damage
A, regeneration of
two,
three fibrous repair, wound healing
second chapter of local blood circulation obstacle
the first section with
A, arterial hyperemia.
two, venous hyperemia.
second thrombosis.
A, thrombus formation conditions and mechanism of
two, thrombosis and type
three,
four, thrombosis prognosis effects of thrombosis.
third.
A, thrombus embolism The operation way of
two, embolism type and its consequences.
Fourth infarction
A, the causes of infarction, infarction.
two morphological characteristics and types of
three, infarction effect on body
third
the first chapter inflammation inflammation.
second segment inflammation of local basic pathological changes of
A, metamorphic
two, exudative
three,
third segment inflammation hyperplasia of local and systemic reactions.
A, local manifestations of
two,
Fourth inflammatory systemic response type
A, the clinical classification of
two, inflammatory pathological classification
fifth segment inflammation ending
A, cured
two, persistent unhealed
three,
fourth chapter tumor spread
section tumor of the concept and features of
A, conception of tumor
two,
second characteristics of the tumor nomenclature and classification of
a nomenclature principle,
two,
three classification of tumor, tumor grade and stage
four, tumor lesion characteristics of
third precancerous lesions and carcinoma in situ of
A, precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ
two,
Fourth Section of tumor etiology and mechanism of
A, tumor etiology of
two, tumor pathogenesis of
fifth chapter of common diseases in cardiovascular system diseases


two, rheumatism, atherosclerosis, hypertension
three
second respiratory diseases and tuberculosis.
a
two, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis,
three
third digestive system disease.
A,
two chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease.
three,
four viral hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver.
Fourth glomerulonephritis.
A, etiology and pathogenesis of
two,
three, the basic pathological changes of primary glomerulonephritis classification
four, common glomerulonephritis type
fifth endocrine system disease, diabetes
a > two, diffuse toxic goiter.
sixth chapter hypoxia
the first common oxygen index of
a partial pressure of oxygen,
two,
three oxygen capacity, oxygen content of
four,
five oxygen saturation, arteriovenous oxygen content difference of
second day hypoxic types and features of the
A, hypotonic hypoxia
two, blood hypoxia
three,
four cycling hypoxia, hypoxia
third functional and metabolic changes.
A, changes in respiratory system.
two, changes of circulatory system
three,
four the change of blood system, central nervous system changes of
five, tissue changes of
section fourth influence of body to hypoxia tolerance factor
A, oxygen consumption rate of
two, the compensatory ability of the body
seventh chapter shock
first shock causes and classification of
A, shock.
two, classification of shock
second development process of shock and microcirculation microcirculation during ischemia.
A,
two,
three, stagnant microcirculation microcirculation failure
third shock metabolism, changes in the function of
A, metabolism of
two, body organsChanges in the function of
eighth chapter disseminated intravascular coagulation
the first festival of disseminated intravascular coagulation concept of
second DIC causes and mechanisms of
A, DIC causes
two, the mechanisms of DIC
section third influence factors of the development of DIC,
A, single nucleus macrophage system function.
two, liver function obstacle
three,
four high blood coagulation, microcirculation
Fourth DIC staging and typing of
A, disseminated intravascular coagulation stage
two, disseminated intravascular coagulation type
fifth the main function of DIC, changes in metabolism.
A, hemorrhage and
two,
three, shock and organ dysfunction.
four,
ninth chapter anemia important organ failure.
the first heart failure.
A,
two, the concept of heart failure heart failure causes and triggers of
three, heart failure classification of
four,
five mechanisms of heart failure, heart failure, functional and metabolic changes of
second.
a respiratory failure, respiratory failure, the concept of
two respiratory failure of the original Because of the mechanism and
three, respiratory failure and functional, metabolic changes in
third hepatic encephalopathy hepatic encephalopathy.
A, the concept of
two, the cause of encephalopathy and classification of
three, hepatic encephalopathy mechanism of
four, the precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy < br > Fourth renal failure, renal failure.
a concept of
two,
three acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, uremia.
four
"pathology" experiment guidance
the main references
Chapter excerpt

5 other factors (age 1) incidence of atherosclerosis increases with age. (2) sex before menopause, female morbidity than men, after menopause, this difference disappeared. (3) obesity obesity prone to hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, easily lead to atherosclerosis. (two) the basic pathological changes of 1 fatty streak period is the early lesions of atherosclerosis. Macroscopic observation: cap needle the size of spots and the width of 1 ~ 2mm, length of yellow stripes appear artery intima, not uplift or slightly uplift in the intimal surface. Mirror is the accumulation of foam cells. The 2 fibrous plaque period evolved from fatty streaks. Macroscopic observation: see the uplift in the intimal surface pale yellow plaque. As the plaque surface collagen fibers increased and hyalinization, lipid plaque is buried in the deep, gradually turned into white porcelain. Microscopic observation: plaque surface is a layer of fibrous cap, fiber cap under different amounts of hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells, macrophages, foam cells and extracellular lipid and matrix. 3 atheromatous plaque period observed: obvious uplift in the intimal surface pale yellow or white porcelain plaque. Section, the fibrous cap surface of the porcelain white, deep as much yellow porridges like substance. Microscope: the fibrous cap hyalinization, deep as a lot of amorphous necrotic material, its inner see cholesterol crystals and deposition of calcium salt, bottom and edge is the proliferation of granulation tissue. Lesions serious smooth muscle cells showed different degrees of atrophy, thinning of the film. A composite of 4 lesions (1) within the plaque rupture vessels intraplaque hemorrhage, blood flow within the formation of plaque, plaque hematoma, make plaques more uplift, and even make arterial lumen occlusion. (2) the rupture of the plaque fibrous cap plaque surface rupture, local ulcer, necrosis of atheromatous material can flow the blood caused by embolism. (3) the formation of plaque thrombosis intimal injury and ulcer, promote thrombosis, if the shedding can cause embolism. (4) calcified calcium salt can be deposited in the necrosis and fibrous cap, arterial wall and become hard, crisp. (5) aneurysm formation due to membrane atrophy, decreased elasticity, pressure in the blood vessels under which bulge outward, aneurysm formation.
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