Human renal glucose threshold of different, children and pregnancy renal threshold for glucose lowering or variation, by urine testing will overestimate the blood glucose level increased; kidney candy threshold elderly and dehydration state, blood sugar is high urine may still negative; diabetic kidney candy threshold history longer rise, so the urine detection will underestimate the blood glucose level. Bladder neuropathy in elderly diabetic patients, due to retention of urine, the measurement may include more early discharge of urine glucose, but can not reflect the time reallyHigh glucose real; diabetic nephropathy in elderly, renal glucose threshold may be increased. According to the negative urine test results can not distinguish hypoglycemia, normal glucose or mild to moderate hyperglycemia, therefore, in the prevention of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on urine detection is of limited value. Urine detection is based on the use of strip the color change of judgment, is not accurate enough, the determination results some drugs also interference. At present, many hospitals have no longer use glucose results reflect the changes of the blood glucose in diabetic patients, the more rapid capillary blood glucose determination to accurately reflect the blood sugar instant. 1.2 blood glucose because glucose fluctuation and instantaneous, easily affected by diet, medications, exercise and stress and volatility, the instant blood glucose test can only provide a particular point in time diabetes control blood sugar levels, reflecting the immediate. Rapid determination of blood sugar has been the main means of doctors and monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patients and guiding the therapy adjustment value, often by monitoring before meals and before sleep, after the 7 time points of blood glucose in clinical understanding of glycemic control. This way is convenient, quick, but it was just a point in time the value of blood sugar, often miss the day change of blood glucose in the important information, the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the changes in blood glucose. In recent years, can fully reflect the CGMS glucose spectrum (c:GMS) was applied in clinic.
In recent years, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in the world, IDF2009 statistical data showed, the number of patients in 2007 the global diabetes has reached 246000000, and is projected to 2025 will increase by 55%, reaching 380000000; according to the latest data from epidemiological investigation of China the number of patients with diabetes was 92400000, Chinese become diabetic country. Diabetes patients, family and social harm from diabetic acute and chronic complications, the complications of severe threat to health and even life of patients, lead to a sharp increase in medical expenses, to the individual, family and social burden. Early detection of high risk for diabetes and early diagnosis of diabetic and timely intervention and standard treatment for them, is to reduce the incidence of diabetes and key measures, and delay the development of diabetic complications. In the management of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been used for the gold standard to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment scheme. In addition, because HbA1c is stability index reflects the long-term changes of blood sugar, in recent years by HbA1c. Diagnosis of diabetes has become a research hotspot. In 2009 America Diabetes Association (ADA), the European Association for the study of diabetes (EASD) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) jointly organized the International Committee of experts on whether HbA1c can be used as a diagnosis of diabetes were systematic evidence review and discussion, finally agreed to recommend the use of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and delivered a work report.
The first chapter of the basic knowledge of HbA1c 1.HbA1c between diabetes and history of the discovery of the chemical structure of 2.HbA1c 3.HbA1c biosynthesis process kinetics of formation of HbA1c 4.HbA1c 5 Determination results by a factor of 5.1 glucose levels in the 5.2 age of 5.3 types of hemoglobin and level 5.4 region 5.5 RBc life of 5.6 social economic status and mental status of 5.7 species 5.8 food and drug 5.9 pregnancy 5.10 a special type of diabetes and 5.11 other disease states 5.12 detection methods. The second chapter HbA1c and diabetes management in 1 glucose monitoring indexes overview and the index in the management of diabetes in the role of 1.1 glucose 1.2 glucose 1.3 glycosylated serum protein of 1.4 HbA1c2.HbA1c reflects the long-term control of blood sugar levels in diabetic patients with the gold standard of 2.1 HbA1c in the population distribution characteristics of 2.2 HbA1c and diabetes complications related to HbA1c 2.3 decreased and diabetic complication risk improvement 2.4 clinicians and patients to HbA1c know the extent of the effect of diabetes control effect of 2.5 in a plurality of diabetes in}HbA1c status and control target of 3 to in the management of diabetes in the comprehensive application of HbA1c and other indicators of blood glucose monitoring 3.1 according to the pathological and physiological state selection indicators of blood glucose monitoring 3 Monitoring of.2 HbA1c 3.3 self monitoring blood glucose of 3.4 dynamic monitoring of blood glucose 3.5 glucose monitoring 3.6 simultaneous detection of blood glucose, GSP and the significance of HbA1c third: HbA1c and diabetes diagnosis and screening of 1 screening and early diagnosis of diabetes is an important part of management of diabetes type 1.1 diabetes epidemic situation at home and abroad 1.2 screening and early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes diagnosis standard (glucose tangent) method and the determination of historical changes of 2.1 based on the blood glucose level distribution of diabetes diagnosis 2.2 based on the blood glucose level and the long-term complications of diabetes risk diagnosis of 3 existing diabetes diagnosis method defects 3.1 two blood glucose detection method for diagnosing diabetes coincidence rate is not high in 3.2 glucose variability rate is high, poor reproducibility of 3.3 laboratory testing before the error and error detection affects the results of the 3.4 OGTT problems encountered in the implementation of 4 with HbA1c diagnosis of diabetes to explore whether the 4.1 HbA1c can be used for the diagnosis of type 4.2 diabetes with HbA1c in diagnosis of diabetic point shall be of the number 4.3 HbA1c detection can define specific sub diabetic "high-risk" state 4.4 whether should use HbA1c found that diabetes risk the crowd of 4.5 using the HbA1c diagnosis of diabetes 4.6 limitations 1.1 ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography assay 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 electrophoresis enzyme method for 2.HbA1c detection principle and characteristics of the dynamic 5 1.HbA1c for the detection of HbA1c screening for diabetes fourth chapter HbA1c conventional method for the determination of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes in standard 2.1 HbA1c detection standard significance of the 2.2 international HbA1c standardization job description 3.HbA1c detection of standardized 3.1 domestic, international commonly used method for the detection of HbA1c (instrument) quality testing of 3.2 HbA1c guarantee @##@ interference factors of 3.3 HbA1c detection In recent years, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in the world, IDF2009 statistical data showed, the number of patients in 2007 the global diabetes has reached 246000000, and is projected to 2025 will increase by 55%, reaching 380000000; according to the latest data from epidemiological investigation of China the number of patients with diabetes was 92400000, Chinese become diabetic country. Diabetes patients, family and social harm from diabetic acute and chronic complications, the complications of severe threat to health and even life of patients, lead to a sharp increase in medical expenses, to the individual, family and social burden.
The national science and technology support program "in common points of screening and popularization of" training.
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